Here's some information taken from a very old publication I inherited from my father. I thought some of the information given is still very relevant, especially to those who perhaps would like breed in the future. Most kennels start with one or two foundation bitches, using outside stud dogs. Inevitably the time comes when you breed a really nice dog puppy, and decide to run him on as a future stud dog, as well as showing. In this case, a lot of acre must be given to his upbringing, as early treatment can make or mar a dogs performance of his duties. The first rule is never to hurt his pride. If your young dog is amongst litter-mates or puppies of his own age he will be larking about with them, and around 5 months of age, a little sexual play may be noticed. As you value his future, never check him for this - if it gets too much simply seperate for a while and put him with some older dogs if possible. His ego must be encouraged in every way. When your young dog is running with several bitches, make sure there is not one coming into season, who might snap at him sniffing - he could find this very 'off-putting'. A breeder making a long journey to a particular dog for the purpose of mating is entitled to expect a competent performance, even if the bitch is not feeling very co-operative. This means both dog and handlers must know their job. If at all possible, the dog should be trained and afterwards handled by the same team everytime, so that all learn to work in harmony. Many breeders expect a dog to be able to mate on his own, but this can be VERY dangerous for the dog. It is better to have a special place for matings. An end of a light airy store-room is good, if big enough for handlers and dogs, or even a little grass place or concrete run. Both dog and bitch should wear leather collars. It is a good idea to keep a spare collar handy. Owners hardly ever think to bring one with them, and trying to control a fidgety bitch on a checkchain is a job for Superman!! It is also a good idea to have a pot of vaseline handy and some disposable gloves. A muzzle should always be to hand too, for those bitches that can be a bit 'snacky'. This precaution is for the benefit of the stud dog more than the handlers, as a bitten ear could ruin a stud dogs career. Your dog is now ready for his first trial, or so you hope. First and foremost unlimited patience is absolutely necessary, because it can be a most frustrating job. Very rarely indeed is it not possible to get a good service, but it may take time. Try and make your dogs first service on one of your own bitches. This has the advantage that the dog knows the bitch and also you can spend as long as necessary on the job without worrying about some anxious waiting owner. If the service does not prove fruitful, there is no unpleasantness or arguments over whether a stud fee is to be paid.Once your dog has sired a litter of pups, he is known as 'proven' and you charge a fee for his services. Let the dog and bitch meet to have a sniff of each other and perhaps a little play 'flirting'. It is much better that only the two people who are going to attend him during his stud career should be present, as with a queit trained team, services can be carried out much more efficiently. If the dog is keen and starts to mount, watch that he does not get too excited and facy he is mated, as he may well lose the richest part of his semen. Your learner may well do a few foolish things, such as trying to get on at the bitchs head, or pulling out a hind leg and working on it. Dont scold him, just remove him gently by his collar and take him behind the bitch - he will soon get the idea! When you find him trying in the right position, or thereabouts, give a little praise and you can start. Put the bitch standing four square, with her helper standing facing her and holding her collar, with both thumbs between her neck and the collar, whilst palms and fingers press down over her shoulders. Then let the dog mount her with a little encouragement if needed, and he should be in the right position and trying. When he is really keen, his handler inserts his right (or left) hand slowly, and as flat as possible, between the two animals. Slipping his first and second fingers under the vulva he lifts it gently upwards until the opening is opposite the vaginal passage. He must then try to catch the dogs hard pointed penis in the 'cup' made by the slightly open vulva. If the heights of the pair are right, apss the left (or right) hand under the bitch, hlding her just in front of the hind legs, to support her so that she does not twist away. The dog should then slip in and at once give a powerful drive forward. This will be felt by the two fingers under the vulva. Withdraw the hand and put it behind the dogs buttocks, press gently but firmly for about a minute. This ensures he will get right in and make a good tie. This is the time your helper has to watch out, in case the bitch struggles to free herself - which many do, especially if they are in pain. Your sole concern at this moment must be your cherished stud dog, as he is helpless in this position and can be seriously hurt if the bitch manages to throw him. Some bitches will even try to roll over. At the same time, the bitch handler has to remember to leave room for the dogs head and neck to come up by the bitchs head, when he makes his essential drive. You should steady your dog after 'locking' him in, by putting your arm round him and keeping your other hand and wrist under the bitch, just in front of her hind legs to keep them firm. Hold until he wants to turn. If you do not give room for the dogs head, and also someone he likes and knows at that end, he may work too far back from the bitch which makes it difficult for the stud handler to connect him. No other method than adjusting the bitch must be used, as if the dogs penis is touched you could cause him great pain and put him off completely. If when you are holding the vulva in the right position, the dog seems to be striking too high, you will need a small platform for the bitch to stand on using her hind legs only, this should raise her up enough for the dog to comfortably manage. If the difference is the other way, let the dog raise up on the platform and the bitch stand on the ground. This is definitely a job that gets easier with experience and practice. Soon after he ties, he will want to turn round tail to tail, so let him put both front feet down on one side. It is much easier to control this turn if you train him to twist away from you, so if your bitch handler can spare a hand, get him to take hold of the dogs collar and turn him away right-angled to the bitch, whilst you keep both lots of hind legs together. Give him a few seconds to adjust himself, as he is very tightly pinched in the bitch, then take his collar and continue to turn until in a straight line. During this second part of the turning, yu have to lift the dogs hind leg over the back of the bitch. Sounds a bit complicated, but most dogs help. The 'tie' can last anything from 5 minutes to as long as 45 minutes. Most are in the region of 15 to 25 minutes and the majority of dogs will tie the same length of time in every service. Collar should be held and the bitch steadied underneath. Many dogs give a kind of sideways plunge before they come free, which can be a warning to handlers to tighten controls. Sometimes, however, the tie gives so easily that it can be unnoticed, even by the dogs. Let the bitch stay where she is for a while and put the dog out of the way, somewhere quiet, with a word of praise for a job well done! The bitch can then be taken away somewhere quiet also, preferably to rest for about an hour before setting off on the journey home. Any fluid that runs out of her as she walks is surplus to requirements and mainly the diluting fluid, as a lusty young dog can eject an incredible amount, the bitch keeps what she has room for. Before putting the dog back into his quarters, check to see that he has gone bakc fully into his sheath. If not, this sheath must be gently pulled back and the inflamed penis bathed very gently by dropping warm water on to it from a clean sponge or cotton wool. when all is well, he will probably enjoy a god drink of fresh water and rest. For the larger breeds, the best way to lock them together when the tie is made is to slip round smarlty behind the dog and hold the bitches stifle joints, one in each hand. You may well need three handlers for the larger breeds also, one as usual concerned with holding the head, the dog handler, and another one who had better be pretty strong, as his job is mainly to support an enormous weight, which at the start of the tie, consists of a large bitch and an even larger dog in one package. Most services go on quite simply and easily once the dog is trained, but you may strike a few snags in his early days and later on from some non-co-operative bitches. Your dog may be a little shy of coming near a bitch, especially if she grumbles at him. If she is really ready, but perhaps one of those who stand rock steady and wait for the dog, he may be doubtful because she wont play. In this case, dont take him to her, take her to him, presenting her back end to him, perhaps lifting her back end up and swinging from left to right in front of his nose. This will usually cause him to show interest. You can also try lifting the front end of a bitch if not too heavy, so that her body is at about 45 degree slope. Most dogs find this irresistable. If he mounts, the handler lets her down gently and slowly which should put the dog in just the right position for service. This tip also helps with a dog who persists in working about 2 inches away from his bitch - a most aggravating trick! Some dogs like to start their mounting by putting one foreleg over the bitch from the side, then working around the corner until they are corerctly placed. These are frequently very good stud dogs. This is quite different from the fooling around they sometimes do when learning.