As you may know, I have a website selling dog collectibles. The other day I bought a set of 'Trade cards' The ones you used to collect many years ago from cigarette packs. Well I was reading the backs of them. They are mainly about how to train your dog. The back of one reads.... GENERAL HINTS BEATING Never beat a pup except for biting or snarling or repeated and deliberate disobedience; if the pup is brought up as directed beating will never be needed. If he does wrong throw a light stick at his legs. It is not being hurt, but the apparent length of this Master's arm which impresses him. For bad shots gravel is equally good. Waaaaa!!!! How times have changed!!!